THE HISTORY OF TEMPLARS
We are around the year 1000. Pope Urban II marks the first crusade to free the Holy Land from infidels. Hughes de Payen took part in this first Crusade.
At the end of the same, he made available, together with eight other confreres, to make sure the pilgrims who wanted to go to Jerusalem.
Thus the nine founded a monastic-knightly order, ie they were both soldiers and monks in 1119.
At that time Jerusalem reigned Baldwin II who, grateful to these early Knights, gave them permission to occupy a part of the Great Mosque of Al-Aqsa that had been built on the site where the Temple of King Solomon once stood.
For this reason the nine were started to call by the name of Pauperes Commilitones Christi Templique Salomonis or "Poor companions of Christ and the Temple of Solomon, from which the Knights Templar.
As a monastic order it was approved only in 1128 with the Council of Troyes thanks to the intercession of Saint Bernard of Clairvaux which prompted Pope Honorius II to grant them official recognition. In this Council Bernardo indicates, in his De laude novae militiae, to the Knights the activities to be carried out in time of peace and war, the power to follow, the clothing to wear in the various circumstances for each category of Brothers. It was Bernardo who drafted the rule for the Templars to follow. Its members made a vow of chastity, obedience and poverty, leaving all their properties and inheritances to the Order.
The growth of the Order was further accentuated by the papal favor.
Innocent II, who owed his election to the papal throne to Bernard, in 1139 with the Bull Omne datum optimum had granted the Order total independence from temporal power, including the exemption from the payment of taxes and gabelles, in addition to the privilege of making I only count on the Pope in person and demand tithes.
The Templars were identifiable by their white overcoat, to which later, in 1147 by concession of Eugene III, a distinct red cross embroidered on the shoulder was added, which finally assumed great dimensions on the chest or back, as seen in many representations of the Crusader Knights.
The Templars established themselves both in combat and in other fields. They were also skilled in the field of agricultural management of the lands that became their property and were skilled bankers.
Within two centuries the Order became increasingly rich and powerful, especially in Italy and France, where important churches and mansions were built.
The Templars had accumulated enormous wealth so much that many sovereigns and important personalities had resorted to financial loans. It was precisely because of this wealth that the King of France, Philip IV the Fair, through a series of slanderous accusations, succeeded in suppressing the Order so as to eliminate its debts and take possession of the Templar heritage, while reducing the power of the Church .
On Friday 13 October 1307, Philip the Fair ordered his soldiers to simultaneously arrest all the Templars in France and search every Commandery. Among those arrested were Grand Master Jacques De Molay and the Preceptor of Normandy, Goeffrey de Chamay.
In the prisons of the King, those arrested were tortured until they began to admit heresy.
On November 22, 1307 Pope Clement V, faced with confessions, with the bull Pastoralis praeminentiae in turn ordered the arrest of the Templars throughout Christianity.
On 12 August 1307 with the Bull Faciens misericordiam, the charges brought against the Temple were defined. From 1308 to 1312, the King had various trials aimed at proving the crimes of the Red-Crusader Knights of Paris, Brindisi, Penne, Chieti and Cyprus, thanks to the weakness of Pope Clement V.
The Order was officially suspended with the Bolla Vox in excelso dated April 3, 1312 and its assets transferred to the Knights Hospitallers, the following May 2 (Ad providam bill).
Jacques de Molay, the last Grand Master of the Order, who at first confirmed the accusations, portrayed them driven by a final blaze of pride, dignity and not least the desire to be able to personally meet Pope Clement V, since he owed him obedience, being burned at the stake together with Geoffrey de Chamay on 18 March 1314 in front of the cathedral of Paris, on the Seine island known as the Jews.
Philip the Fair, who forfeited the treasure of the monks and destroyed their banking system simply by using it to manage their own interests.
These events and the original banking operations of the Templars on the deposited assets, which were suddenly mobilized, constituted two of the many steps towards a military-style system to regain control of European finances, removing this power from the hands of the Church. Given the fate of the Templars, the Hospitallers of St. John were equally convinced to cease their banking operations.
An agenda tells us that before he died, the Grand Master pronounced a terrible curse against the King and the Pope: << I wait before the Court of God, the King of France for three hundred days, and Pope Clement V before forty >> days. In fact, less than forty days later, on the night between 19 and 20 April, Clement V, who for some time had been suffering from irrepressible vomiting, died in Roquemaure-sur-Rhone, near Avignon.
During the same year, Philip the Fair also died of an incurable disease. Some said, following a hunting accident (he had fallen off his horse), according to others.
Not only that, in a short time all the descendants of the king died for various reasons, and the family of Philip the Fair became extinct forever and totally.
STORIA DLE MEDIOEVO - I TEMPLARI
I TEMPLARI - GUERRIERI DI DIO - (NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC)
HISTORICAL EVENTS HISTORY
1095 Pope Urban II proclaims the first Crusade
1099 The Crusaders conquer Jerusalem
1110 Death of Godfrey of Bouillon. Baldwin II is king of Jerusalem. The "Poor Knights of Christ" make their appearance
1119 Hughes de Payns founds the Order of the Temple which is not yet official.
1128 The Order of the Temple is made official at the Council of Troies
1130 Saint Bernard writes the tribute to the New Militia
1131 Folco V da Anjou becomes King of Jerusalem
1136 Hughes de Payns dies. He is succeeded by Robert de Craon
1139 Pope Innocent II relieves the Order and frees it from normal ecclesiastical obligations.
1143 Baldwin III succeeds Folco V of Anjou as King of Jerusalem
1146 Saint Bernard preaches the second crusade
1150 Defeat of the second crusade
1153 Death of Saint Bernard
1162 Amarury I succeeds Baldwin III as King of Jerusalem
1174 Amarury I dies and is succeeded by Baldwin IV
1182 Saladin fights against the Templars in Palestine
1185 Baldwin V, then Guy de Lusignan succeed Baldwin IV
1187 Saladin conquers Jerusalem
1191 Third crusade with, in succession, Federico Barbarossa, Filippo Augusto and Riccardo Cuor di Leone
1192 Henry II of Champagne, King of Jerusalem, Richard the Lionheart wins Saladin, then is won by him.
1193 Death of Saladin
1196 Pope Innocento III supports the Templars
1199 Fourth Crusade
1200 Wolfram von Eschenbach writes his "Parsifal"
1204 The crusaders conquer Constantinople
1216 Death of Innocent III. The sucecde Onorio III
1218 Attack of Damietta during the V crusade
1220 First invasion of the Mongols
1221 Failure of the fifth crusade in Egypt
1228 Frederick II enters Jerusalem, abandons the crusade and returns to Germany
1229 Conflict between Templars and Teutonic Knights
1232 Negotiation policy with the Sultan of Damascus
1239 Pope Gregory IX preaches for a new crusade
1244 The Carismenian Turks conquer Jerusalem
1245 Council of Lyon: condemnation of Frederick II
1248 Crusaders of St. Louis
1250 The Mamelukes, lords of Egypt
1256 Saint Louis returns to France
1261 Election to the papacy of Urban IV
1269 Ghughes III of Cyprus King of Jerusalem
1270 Saint Louis dies in Tunis
1282 Ten-year truce between the crusaders and Egypt
1285 Philip the Fair, King of France
1291 The Templars lose the Holy Land
1296 Conflict between Philip the Fair and Pope Bonofacio VIII
1298 Jacques de Molay GRAND MASTER OF THE TEMPLE
1302 Council of Rome. The Pope launches an ultimatum against Filippo Il Bello, who has his States' approval of his policy against the Vatican
1303 Bonifacio VIII excommunicates Philip the Fair. The King instructs William of Nogaret to arrest the Pope. Death of Boniface VIII Benedict XI succeeds him and grants general absolution (exluded Nogaret)
1305 Denunciation of the Templars to the Duke of Aragon and to Filippo Il Bello Election of the Pope Clement V who accepts the accusations against the Templars brought by Filippo Il Bello.
1306 Filippo Il Bello confiscates Jewish property. The Inquisition tortures them and exiles them. New financial measures trigger a riot against the king who seeks asylum for the Templars.
1307 Meeting between Jacques de Molay and Clement V. Opening of the Templar inquiry:
October 13 - the Templars are arrested
October 25 - first confessions of Jacques de Molay and other specimens
October 27 - the Pope sends a letter of protest to Filippo il Bello
17 November - Papal bull ordering the arrest of all Templars in Europe. The Templars flee to England, Scotland, Portugal with their Mason Masters
1308 Clement V cancels the power of the Inquisition. Jacques de Molay portrayed his confessions. Campaign of Philip the Fair against Clement V. The Pope is judged too favorable to the Templars.
May 27 - the king the Pope and pressures him
August 17-20 - new trial with commission of inquiry
1309 August - Beginning of the second trial. Templar efforts to organize their defense
1310 May 13 - Execution of 54 Templars by order of Philip of Marigny, imposed by the king on the Pope as Archbishop of Sens
1311 June 5 - End of the second trial
1312 April 3 - Opening of the session of the Council: the Pope reads his bull Vox clamantis: it is the end of the Order of the Specimens. 2 May second bull, Ad providam, favorable to the Hospitallers of San Giovanni who inherit some of the specimens' assets.
May 6 - Third bubble Considerantes dudum which concludes the judgment of the Temple
1313 December 22 - Papal Delegation in Paris to follow the process of the Order's Dignitaries
1314 March 18 - final execution